The Roman world and its culture also have a major effect on these lands. It forms part of their history, customs and peculiarities. The enormous political, juridical, administrative, social and military importance of "Clunia Sulpicia" is felt throughout these lands. This is expressed in the communication routes – roads -, tithes, bridges and, above all, the imposing ruins of the great Roman city of Clunia, seat of the "conventus iuridicus cluniensis".
The Roman city was built on a spectacular plateau. It posseses an elegant forum and great mansions, churches, a basilica, a market and other public buildings. Beside it there are noteworthy public baths and a spectacular theatre, which was built making great use of the natural shape of the rocks.
This noteworthy city would mark the future history of the area and, subsequently, the large community of townships under Clunia was to take shape. This was to become a great attraction to both Moslems and Christians in the process of occupation and domination of the area. Only the end of the old world, the deterioration of the communications and the lack of state and commercial organization were to slowly but surely bring about the weakening of this Roman city, turning it into a mere reminder of the power and juridical strength it once enjoyed. This weakening was to begin in the 10th century and, more especially, in the 12th century. .
This somewhat unusual route will take us along some of the Roman roads which, whether part of the Itinerary of Antonino (Caesar Augusta- Asturica Augusta) or documented by remains, linked Clunia with other significant areas. An attempt will be made to indicate the remains of these and to see their significance on roads, bridges and towns.
Access to this town is gained by taking the asphalted road fr om the town of Peñalba. We will admire its layout and its Ribera popular architecture. For our visit to the Roman city of Clunia we will go up the access road and the first thing we will see is the theatre, one of the biggest in the Hispanic world. Then we will see the public baths and an impressive public building which was erected over a long period. Two main streets, cardo and decumano, come together at the forum wh ere we shall see several mansion houses, a basilica, a market and several churches dating back to the period between the 1st and the 4th centuries.
One of the roads from Clunia passed through the town of Arauzo de Torre. To remind us of that period there is an inscription on the southern wall of the parish church of San Pedro Apóstol that displays Romanesque traces and forms. In our visit we will see the interesting popular architecture in the current town and the hermitage in honour of the Virgen de los Remedios.
The road linking Clunia with the valley of the River Arlanza used to pass through the town of Valdeande, passing through Tordómar on its way to Sasamón. We can still see remains of the road, various inscriptions, capitals, a fountain and the Cela or Ciella site on the banks of the River Esgueva. During our visit we will be able to admire the painted reredo with its Renaissance features in the parish church of Saint Peter (San Pedro) and the archeological study room. (Address: C/ Virgen del Juncal,1)
The Roman Culture finds its point of reference in this town in the north-west of the Ribera del Duero Burgalesa in a recovered section of Roman road that crosses a restored medieval bridge.
The parish church of San Martín has one single nave, a large hall, and a masonry stone wall, a south facing entrance and a domed roof with crossed over diagonal arches. The upper end and the family chapel are the end result of a major refurbishment that took place in the 16th century. The nave, the entrance and the relief of a tympanum incrusted in the wall are of Romanic forms.